Universal Expansion

Copyright © 2003 by Sam Sade, all rights reserved. This text may be freely redistributed among individuals in any medium so long as it remains unedited and appears with this notice Any commercial or republication requires the written permission of the author.

What Is Expansion?

Let me begin with; the cosmological constant theory suggests that the greater universe always WAS and always will BE and exists without expansion. While this theory presents conceptual as well as philosophical difficulties; logic suggests that it must be so.

The current theories using "expansion" isn't really the best word to describe what is happening to our local universe, although that is the word most often used - a word choice which I think leads to a lot of unnecessary confusion regarding what is already a difficult concept; a more accurate description is “matter decay” or “quantum unit dispersion”.

The term expansion of a Mini universe is a determinant that must be interpreted as the decaying process of a configuration.

A General Theory of Relativity should predict that galaxies, stars and all lesser baryon content in a Mini Universe (MU) as an open system is subject to continual increase in distance between masses as observations confirm. We must keep in mind that the Big Bang represents the creation of a Mini Universe and suggests that a MU must have been much smaller in volume at its inception. One way to explain what drives the observable increased distances between masses (expansion) of a MU into the Greater Universe (GU) are the process of decay. The Second Law of Thermodynamics infers that expansion is achieved by the means of a cooling process (decay) of galaxies, stars and lesser matter, these baryon objects exist only in Mini Universes (open systems).

One inference as to what drives the observable expansion of the MU volume is that the Big Bang represents only Beta and Gamma units (35% ~ of baryon content) hence the environment must have been much smaller in volume at its inception. When Beta and Gamma are mixed with alpha units the volume will expand exponentially.

The physical reality is, when configurations decay they do not have a causal effect on density, contraction or expansion of the Greater Universe itself.

This would suggest that observable expansion is simply a decline in the size of the baryon mass and its volume structure. This process of dissipating dark matter and specific units that form baryon matter, fuels the separation between the observable galaxies, stars etc. Hence as long as baryon matter exists in a MU, the MU will experience a continual increase in volume as newly dispersed fundamental particles push / nudge the presently occupying quantum units; a logical consequence would infer a condition pushing configurations further apart from each other.This physical process suggests; the Big Bang creates initial conditions and an environment that inflates the volume but does NOT affect the density of the MU or the Greater Universe; the GU remains a constant.

Space does not expand, open systems decay, disperse Alpha* units and fundamental particles into a pre- existing quantum unit filled space, while GU itself does not expand. The volume of a configuration is directly proportional to the sum of its quantum heat unit content; therefore whether it is in a configuration or in a dispersed form it maintains the same space volume. This process of dispersing Alpha and beta units that form clump matter, fuel the separation of observable galaxies and stars etc. Hence as long as clump matter exists in our local universe, the baryon masses will experience a continual increase in distance between them. The Mini universe should not experience any increase to its volume.

One way to explain expansion of our Mini Universe is that it is expanding into a Greater Universe; expansion is a decaying process of galaxies and stars as they expel quantum heat units into the pre- existing quantum unit filled space; one unit adjacent to the next adjacent unit infinitely. This process creates a push effect, pushing configurations further apart and increasing the distances between galaxies, stars and so on. This expansion does not alter the density in any part of space; it simply represents a redistribution of quantum units.

By observing the increase in distances between galaxies in our local universe, logically there must have been a condition when all the galaxies were closer together or even in one place. One then can argue, the evolution of a Mini Universe from the Bing Bang to present times is a logical extrapolation. Accordingly the increase of distance between galaxies is proportional to the decrease in unit volume of these same galaxies that are embedded in these slow spinning plasmas (Alpha and Dark Matter).

When considering the fundamental mechanics of expansion, clump matter is at one end of the spectrum and quantum heat units are at the other, the 2nd law describes the process that takes place between them. The configuration is changing in the direction of the quantum value, in other words clump matter is decaying reverting to a fundamental quantum state. The newly dispersed dark matter and Alpha units need new space; hence they push the existing particles in the pre-filled quantum space; the result is an increase in the distances between the celestial objects. Therefore we may extrapolate the expanding distances in the mini universe are the cooling of galaxies and stars etc.
Logically it would appear that all Mini Universes are structured in the same circular cycle.

In consequence of the fact that baryon matter can continue to decay, a state of expansion in our local Universe will continue, as newly disperse particles merge into a pre- existing quantum unit filled space and create an ever larger sea of fundamental particles? We may ask, if the 1st L o T states, that matter can not be created or destroyed, then why would density in a Mini Universe have reason to change?

We may then assume, that the expansion in a mini universe (open system) can go unchecked to the point where all matter acquires “minimum sized particle state” (quantum units), in contrast the greater universe (closed system) complies to the 1st L o T. and is not affected by decay, as such the system remains constant, both in density and in its quantum unit content.

If we were dealing with simple expansion, then it may be straightforward, but this process is directly relative to the baryon matter shrinking, and only the local region where decay is active, will space simulate an appearance that it undergoes expansion as these configurations continue to be pushed apart by these freshly expelled particles into the pre filled unit space. To an observing eye we can clearly witness expansion of the observable regions.

Why must the GU be a closed system?

The belief that the universe can expand as an "Infinite Expansions Theory" is simply based on a false premise. The infinite theory of expansions reveals a model whereby the 2nd Law of T would at some point be faced with zero thermal space values. Theoretically it could equilibrate (not really) and eventually assume a zero temperature (not really) or the units would be dispersed beyond the point whereby they could reverse and coalesce. This is totally inconsistent with the 1st L o T that expansion can bring about heat death when the property of matter is heat. It is highly probable that “Nature” will NOT manifest conditions for its own destruction.

The Big Bang should be pictured as a big explosion somewhere in space with fragments being cast out Omni directional from an exploding Critical Mass Core; otherwise known as the Black Hole,
This does not mean that the galaxies and lesser objects are flying out into space infinitum, the fact is, relatively very few bodies do, eventually galaxies lose all velocity. As temperatures decrease, planets, stars, galaxies evolve, acquire spin, orbit and adopt a buoyant state, and ultimately surrender all independent motion.

How Does This Effect Man?

We are living in the most intriguing time, in a universe like nothing we imagined just a few short years ago. A hypothetical such as, is man expanding or contracting by some mysterious force were curiosities of fiction.

Living organisms are not noticeably subject to this phenomenon of universal expansion; the dark matter (DM) permeating our body is more or less in equilibrium with our immediate surroundings: albeit our thermal value is higher in comparison to DM in space.(ok so!). Our planet is continuously and simultaneously supplied and depleted of heat, If and when our planet will accrete less heat from our sun than it disperses into space: the cause and effect will be a contraction of the planets' thermal content that will translate as a decrease the construct of the baryon matter content / volume. (not good for us)

Here we may apply the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

This law claims that "heat spontaneously tends to flow only from being concentrated in one place to becoming diffused or dispersed and spread out".
As long as our planet compensates our thermal value, we will not feel any noticeable effects, and dark matter in space will draw heat from the higher thermal emitting matter (E.g. galaxies, stars, earth etc.).

When considering universal expansion we can only observe what we can see. Suppose we observe the stars in the outlying universe, and suppose we observe idiosyncratic mannerism of everyday matter, can we structure common inherent properties.

Assuming the universe, galaxies and all the matter on earth are permeated * by dark matter particles, can these idiosyncratic phenomenon in possession of these structural and behavioral characteristics apply a logical postulate?

There is a consensus in the astronomical community that most of the mass in most (all) galaxies is dark matter and that celestial objects in space and matter on earth are analogous.
I refer here to Dark matter as a generic term for these fundamental particles in the universe though not directly observable, they do permeate and embed all matter and fill the entire space in a MU as inferred by the motion of galaxies.

Dark Matter particles absorb contactually and Omni - directional thermal information from higher heat sources (e.g. stars).
Hypothetically one may extrapolate an increase in thermal content will increase the structure of the fundamental particles (DM) likewise increase the content of specific particles in the region and interpret this as an increase in the local universal volume.

If this assumption is valid than our Sun's heat lose, should express a constant increase to earth's orbit.

fmp * = = = = = = = = fundamental particles.
permeate* = = = = = 1) The dark matter particles - form a 3 dimensional geometrical lattice or plasma that permeate and embed all matter and assist to define the magnitude of a Mini universe with their unit volume.
Permeate* = = = = =2) Dark matter is instrumental in the construction of a plasma; these particles must rest in an adjacent formation. Sequentially vast quantities of contactual DM particles are needed to simply fill the volume and create a route for the transfer of Alpha units in a Mini universe.
Alpha unit* = = = = =one of three quantum units (Alpha, Beta and Gamma)
Specific particles* = = concidered here as Beta And Gamma.
baryon matter paticle = is (1Alplha + 1 Beta +1 Gamma).

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created by Sam Sade

created: June 10, 2003 : last modified: August 2, 2009